48.1 In this chapter, the ALRC examines Part IIIAA of the Privacy Act 1998 (Cth) and the functions vested in the Privacy Commissioner (Commissioner) to approve privacy codes. The chapter discusses amendment of Part IIIA to require that codes operate in addition to the model Unified Privacy Principles (UPPs) and whether there is a need to amend the Act to allow the Commissioner to initiate binding codes.