14.1 This chapter focuses on some specific problems caused by inconsistency and fragmentation in privacy regulation in Australia. The chapter first considers the compliance burden and cost caused by inconsistent privacy requirements across jurisdictions and sectors. Secondly, the problems caused when particular agencies and organisations are required to comply with multiple layers of privacy regulation overseen by more than one regulator are discussed. Thirdly, the chapter considers how inconsistent and fragmented privacy laws can result in reluctance by organisations and agencies to share information. Finally, the chapter outlines various issues related to government contractors.