2.1 This chapter begins by briefly describing the historical background to current classification laws. The chapter then describes the framework of the current National Classification Scheme, comprised of the classification cooperative scheme for publications, films and computer games; and classification-related law as it applies to online and mobile content under the Broadcasting Services Act. The roles of the Classification Board, the Classification Review Board and the Australian Communications and Media Authority (the ACMA) are outlined, along with that of industry under co-regulatory codes of practice for online and broadcast content. The chapter assesses the current scheme, looking at aspects that work reasonably well and those that are not working well and are in need of reform. The chapter concludes by noting the strong arguments made to the ALRC about the need for fundamental reform and for a new National Classification Scheme.