2.1 This chapter sets out a number of conceptual and contextual issues relevant to the Inquiry. Considering these issues assists to frame and situate deliberations about barriers to mature age participation in paid and other productive work. The first section considers concepts of age and ageing. It also sets out data about population ageing in Australia. The next sections consider the definition of ‘work’ and ‘retirement’, as well as levels of mature age participation in both paid and other productive work. The chapter then details potential effects of removing barriers to mature age participation in paid and other productive work. Finally, the chapter sets out the framing principles for the Inquiry.